Telluride in semiconductor applications

Antimonide semiconductor (ABCS) mainly refers to two yuan Ga, In, Al and other elements of the group â…¢ Sb, As and other elements â…¤ compound formed, ternary, and quaternary compound semiconductor material, such as GaSb, InSb, AlGaSb, InAsSb AlGaAsSb, InGaAsSb, etc., their lattice constants are generally around 0.61nm, and are commonly referred to as "0.61nm III-V materials" together with INAS-based materials. The germanide semiconductor material is characterized by a narrow band gap. Under the condition that the lattice of common substrate materials such as GaSb, InAs and InP are almost matched or strain matched, the forbidden band width can be adjusted within a wide range, corresponding to The wavelength can range from near-infrared 0.78um (AlSb) to far-infrared 12um (InAsSb) spectral regions. The heterojunction formed between them can also have a very rich heterojunction band structure of three different alignment types of type I, class II misalignment and class II fracture. The unique band structure and excellent physical properties of ABCS materials provide a great degree of freedom and flexibility for the energy band shearing and structural design of materials, and research and manufacture of various new high-performance microelectronics and optoelectronic devices. And integrated circuits have created a broad space for development in phased-array radar, satellite communications, ultra-high-speed ultra-low-power integrated circuits, portable mobile devices, gas environmental monitoring, chemical detection, biomedical diagnostics, and drug analysis. There are important application prospects.

Application of ABCS materials:

The early attention to germanide semiconductor materials came from its application prospects in the mid-far infrared (photon) detectors, but the first to enter the market and obtain large-scale industrial production is the high sensitivity InSb magnetoresistive HALL sensor, which is widely used. Small brushless DC motors, automotive electronics and consumer electronics. InSb-based infrared detector arrays have also dominated the market in terrestrial infrared applications and space instruments. In addition to these more mature product applications, in recent years, bismuth telluride materials in the third generation of infrared detector focal plane array, mid-far infrared quantum cascade laser, quantum dot laser, ultra-high speed low power low noise amplifier, thermal photovoltaic cell components, etc. Great progress has been made in all aspects. The latest results and trends of some of these ABCS applications are described below.

1. Microelectronic devices and integrated circuits

Microwave millimeter-wave radar and high-frequency digital communication HEMT and HBT devices and circuits have so far experienced the first generation based on GaAs-based materials and the second generation based on InP-based materials. The foundation, third-generation HEMT and HBT devices and circuits with ultra-high speed, lower power consumption and noise factor. After the introduction of the ABCS research program by DARPA in the United States in 2001, ROCKWELL Technologies (RSC) of the United States used its mature GaAs pHEMT process platform with the support of DARPA. Since 2003, it has developed the KA band (34-36GHz) based on InAsAlSb mHEMT. , W-band (92-102GHz) and X-band (8-12 GHz) low-noise amplifier microwave monolithic integrated circuit (mmic), phased-array radar with transmit acceptance (TR) integrated module. At present, DARPA in the United States has actively accelerated the development of ABCS integrated circuits as a core key technology. The near-term goal is to develop a usable ABCS integrated circuit product with an integration degree of more than 5,000 transistors and a working voltage of about 0.5V.

Second, infrared detector

First-generation infrared detector began in the late 1940s, the use of lead salts PbTe and PbSe manufacturing such detection units to detect one-dimensional linear array of mid-infrared 3-5um (HWIR). The second generation of infrared detector materials mainly use InSb and HGCDTE (MCT) for the mid-infrared and 8-12um far infrared (LWIR) atmospheric infrared window. The device has a one-dimensional and two-dimensional focal plane array structure. More mature products are now widely used. In recent years, the third-generation infrared detectors that are being developed in various countries in the world are characterized by multi-band infrared detection, high resolution (high pixel and high frame rate), high operating temperature, high spatial uniformity, high temperature setting and low cost. . Due to the difficulty in achieving large-area uniformity and stability of MCT materials, ABCS superlattice structural materials are widely used as the material of choice for the development of third-generation infrared detectors. In principle, by adjusting the layer thickness of ABCS superlattice structural materials and The component can be tailored to cover the entire infrared-detected spectral region.

Third, infrared laser

Solid-state infrared lasers are of great application in the fields of gas environmental monitoring, chemical detection, biomedical diagnosis, and satellite remote sensing technology. Such as AlGaAsSbInGaAsSb multiple quantum well laser, AlSbInAsInGaSb II quantum cascade laser, "W" type mid-infrared laser, InGaSb quantum dot laser and so on.

Fourth, photovoltaic battery

A thermophotovoltaic cell (TPV), similar to a solar cell, is a device that directly converts thermal radiation (infrared electromagnetic waves) into electrical energy. The current trend of TPV is to develop high-efficiency, low-cost, low-gap-band thermal PV materials and components suitable for medium and low temperature radiation sources at 1500C. Telluride materials are the world's most recognized TPV materials. The most reported ones are InGaAsSb pn junction cells fabricated on GaSb substrates by various methods such as LPE, MOCVD, and MBE. The TPV cell prepared by epitaxial growth of InAsSbP on InAs substrate has a spectral response cutoff wavelength of 2.5-3.4um, which is a research direction with great development potential.

In the near future, new high-performance germanium compounds and integrated circuits will be widely used in many high-tech fields such as infrared imaging technology, atmospheric environment monitoring, biomedical diagnostics, multi-function digital radar systems, mobile communications, and thermal photovoltaic power generation systems. Important application.

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