Talking about the design and installation of fire door monitoring system

Building fire doors are one of the main objects that keep building fire separation completely intact. They have a certain fire resistance and fire resistance, and they can control the fire within a predetermined range [1]. The fire doors on the evacuation passages are safe evacuation of personnel and the firefighters carry out fires to save the passage. In a fire or other emergency, the fire doors can be opened quickly; however, the smoke and fire of the fire may also pass through fires that have not been completely closed. The door slammed into an evacuation channel or other fire partition, resulting in personnel being unable to evacuate or spreading the fire to other fire zones. However, after a large number of buildings are put into use, the fire doors are not opened or closed completely in the way they are designed. In the event of a fire, the fire doors cannot effectively block the smoke and fire. In order to ensure that the fire doors will play their due role, the "Fire Automatic Alarm System Design Specification" (GB 50116-2013) stipulates that a fire door monitoring system must be installed in the building. The correct design and installation of this system can ensure fire protection. The fire blocked the fire and ensured the safe evacuation of personnel. This article briefly introduces the design and installation of the fire door monitoring system.
1 Fire door monitoring system
The fire door monitoring system is a subsystem of the fire automatic alarm system. Its main function is to monitor the opening and closing of the fire doors on the evacuation channel and the fault conditions. The system is mainly composed of a fire door monitor, a fire door monitoring extension, a fire door monitoring module and a monitoring linkage device. The fire door monitoring linkage device includes an electric door closer, a manual button, an electromagnetic release device and a door magnetic switch, etc.[2] .
The fire door monitor can display the opening, closing and failure status of the fire door, control the opening and closing state of the fire door when a fire occurs, and transmit each fire door in the information to the fire automatic alarm system host; the monitoring extension can expand the monitoring system The scope and scale of work; the monitoring module receives the signal of the monitor, controls the on-site monitoring and linkage device, and collects the status information of the on-site monitoring and linkage equipment and transmits it to the monitor; the electric door closer can change or maintain the opening and closing of the fire door. Status, and can feedback its status information to the fire door monitor; the electromagnetic release device keeps the normally open fire door open at all times, closes the fire door after receiving the signal, and feeds back its own status information to the monitor; The switch is used to monitor the open and closed state of the fire door and feed back its status information to the fire door monitor [2].
The main composition of the fire door monitoring system is shown in Figure 1.


Fire alarm signal of automatic fire alarm system, and control the electric door closer and releaser; record the status information of the fire door connected with it. The main power supply of the monitor and monitoring extension uses 220V, 50Hz AC power, and the power supply of the electric door closer, releaser and door magnetic switch adopts DC 24V or 12V; and it is equipped with backup power, and the backup power adopts sealed and maintenance-free rechargeable battery. The battery capacity is normal and reliable 3h [3] under the condition that the monitor is powered on and the fire door is opened and the required power is turned off.
The fire door monitoring extension is an extension of the fire door monitor, which can extend the power supply and communication distance of the fire door monitor, stabilize the system power supply, and ensure reliable communication. At the same time, it can expand the number of fire door monitoring modules to form a more complete and stable system. The monitoring network is smaller and easier to install than the monitor.
In the event of a fire, the opening and closing of the fire doors plays an important role in ensuring the timely evacuation of personnel and obstructing the fire. Fire door monitors and monitoring modules should be used in conjunction with other fire protection systems in the event of a fire. Therefore, fire door monitoring The device is set in the fire control room. If no fire control room is set in the building, the monitor should be located in the place where the person is on duty; the monitoring extension can be set in the electric shaft or floor distribution room; the fire door monitor setting should meet the fire alarm Controller installation requirements [4].
2 Fire Door Monitors and Monitoring Extensions
The fire door monitor is the core of the fire door monitoring system. When the fire door system is working, the fire alarm controller and the fire linkage controller signal are transmitted to the fire door monitor. The fire door monitor monitors the fire door monitor module and the monitoring linkage device; at the same time, the status signal of the fire monitor module is transmitted to The fire door monitor transmits the signal from the fire door monitor to the fire linkage controller and the fire control room graphic display device.
The fire door monitor mainly has the following functions: display and control the open and closed state of the electric door closer and releaser connected thereto;
3 fire door monitoring module and monitoring linkage device
The fire door monitoring module is divided into a normally closed monitoring module and a normally open monitoring module. The normally closed monitoring module has a closed state as a normal state, and the normally open monitoring module has a normally open state as a normal state. When the state changes, the fire door monitor needs Make judgments and reactions. For single doors and double doors, the number of linkage devices they connect is different. From the economic point of view, they can be divided into single-open type and double-open type.
The building fire protection code has the following requirements for fire doors: the opening and closing of fire doors on the evacuation channel and the feedback of fault status signals to the fire door monitor ensure that the use of all fire doors is effectively controlled; fire doors have Closed function can ensure that the fire door is completely closed after the evacuation of the personnel. This function is realized by the door closer; the double-fire door is closed in order, which can prevent the fire door from sealing tightly because of the wrong closing sequence. This function is ensured by using the sequencer. Normally open fire doors should be able to close automatically in the event of a fire, and feedback signals [1], through the fire door monitoring system.
According to the requirements of the above specifications, the fire door monitoring linkage device is mainly installed in the following four forms at the fire door [5].
1) Single or double open normally closed fire doors. The fire doors are normally closed and the magnetic switch is kept closed. When the fire door is opened, the door magnetic switch sends a signal to the fire door monitor through the monitoring module to indicate that the fire door is in an open state. When the door leaf cannot be completely closed, the door magnetic switch feeds back a fault state to the fire door monitor through the monitoring module. Door magnetic switch shall not break the tightness of the door leaf and door frame. Its installation and layout are shown in Figure 2~Figure 4.




2) Single or double open normally open fire doors, electromagnetic release device, mechanical door closer and door magnetic switch, electromagnetic release device and door magnetic switch respectively connected with the monitoring module, fire doors in the normally open state, fire door monitoring system In linkage, the “AND” logic alarm signal of two independent fire detectors in the fire district where it is located, or the “AND” logic alarm signal of a fire detector and a manual fire alarm button is used as the trigger signal for fire linkage linkage. After the fire alarm controller or the fire linkage linkage controller confirms the signal, the fire door monitor activates the electromagnetic releaser through the monitoring module, releases the chain, the door leaf closes under the action of the mechanical door closer, and after the magnetic switch is closed, it passes the monitoring. The module feeds back the fire door closing signal to the fire door monitor. When the door leaf cannot be fully closed, the door magnetic switch feeds back the fault status to the fire protection monitor through the monitoring module, and the door magnetic switch must not break the seal between the door leaf and the door frame. Its installation and layout are shown in Figure 5 to Figure 7.




3) single or double open normally open fire doors, which set the electric door closers, fire doors in a normally open state, after a fire, the fire door monitor through the monitoring module to make the electric door closers move, the door leaf in the electric door closers The shutdown is completed under the drive, and the shutdown signal is fed back to the fire door monitor through the monitoring module. The fire door trigger signal is the same as the normally open door trigger signal with electromagnetic release. The installation height and position requirements of the manual control button are the same as the manual buttons of the normally closed fire door of the electric door closer. When the door leaf cannot be completely closed, the door magnetic switch feeds back the fault state to the fire door monitor through the monitoring module. The door magnetic switch must not break the seal between the door leaf and the door frame, as shown in Fig. 8~Fig.




4 Conclusion
The correct design, construction and installation of the fire door monitoring system is the prerequisite guarantee for its correct use. The design and construction personnel need to understand the new system in the fire automatic alarm system as soon as possible. With the widespread use of the system in the building, It will surely play its due role in protecting the safety of people and property.

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