China needs to catch up with the development of global equipment manufacturing cluster

Since the 1990s, the clustering trend of the global equipment manufacturing industry has continued to develop, that is, manufacturing enterprises of the same industry or related industries have organically gathered at the local (regional) areas and have won competitive advantages through continuous innovation. In the industrial clusterization, SMEs with distinctive features play an important role. Geographically concentrated enterprises and related institutions (universities, chambers of commerce, etc.) compete and cooperate in specific fields. There are 154 clusters in the United Kingdom, which are distributed in 18 regions and cover a wide range of sectors and technologies. The clusters in the north of the United Kingdom tend to be manufacturing industries such as automobiles and metal processing. The electronics industry group in Silicon Valley and Highway 128 in the United States, the medical equipment industry group in Minneapolis, the tool industry group in Solingen, Germany, the machine tool group in Stuttgart, and the optical instrument cluster in Wegela are all in the world. On the more typical industrial clusters.

The world equipment manufacturing industry is advancing toward the direction of comprehensive informatization. Its new development trend is mainly manifested in the development and popularization and application of flexible manufacturing systems and computer integrated manufacturing systems, and it is developing in the direction of manufacturing intelligence. In this process, the information technology, software, and high value-added of the industry will be realized. Judging from the characteristics of technological development, it is manifested as the convergence of technologies; from the perspective of product development, it is characterized by high-tech products, that is, products with high added value, intelligence, and systemization; from the perspective of system management, the performance is integrated. (Including system integration, software integration, technology integration, and interface integration) and networking.

Network technology is accelerating the process of manufacturing globalization, and is changing the production and distribution methods of manufacturing, especially equipment manufacturing. E-commerce and information technology have fundamentally changed the production, consumption, and circulation of the equipment manufacturing industry, and have triggered tremendous changes in the trade sector, accelerating the globalization of the equipment manufacturing industry. In terms of product manufacturing, manufacturing network is rapidly developing. Network technology integrates design, production, sales, and services. Networked manufacturing runs through the formation of orders, organization of business activities, product development, design, manufacturing, processing, and sales. As for the industry, the network is transforming the industrial structure and organizational structure of the equipment manufacturing industry. The trend of vertical integration in some industries is weakening and replaced by the contract subcontract cooperation method.

Networked manufacturing, sales, procurement, after-sales services and contract orders have become indispensable tools and tools for enterprises. In the equipment manufacturing industry in industrialized countries, a group of professional companies operating network markets have emerged, and are engaged in network market operations in various fields such as machine tools, automobiles and parts, and electronic products. With the continued advancement of global trade liberalization, electronic trading tools are commonly used, such as electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic commerce (EC), electronic trading (ETM), and electronic funds transfer (ETF), as well as the convergence of commodity standards. Both the standardization of trade contracts and the ease of trade are conducive to breaking the barriers caused by information and channel monopolies.

The equipment manufacturing industry is a general name for various manufacturing industries that provide technical equipment for the simple reproduction and expansion of reproduction in various sectors of the national economy. Its product range includes the machinery industry (including manufacturing industries such as aviation, aerospace, shipbuilding, and weapons), and investment in the electronics industry. product. According to the function and importance of equipment, equipment manufacturing industry mainly includes the following three aspects:

First, major advanced basic machinery, that is, the “parent machine” of manufacturing equipment, mainly includes CNC machine tools, flexible manufacturing units, flexible manufacturing systems, computer integrated manufacturing systems, industrial robots, large-scale integrated circuits, and electronic manufacturing equipment.

The second is important mechanical and electronic basic parts, mainly advanced hydraulics, pneumatics, bearings, seals, molds, tools, low-voltage electrical appliances, microelectronics and power electronics, instrumentation, and automation control systems.

Third, major sets of technical equipment required for production in various sectors of the national economy (including agriculture, energy, transportation, raw materials, medical and health, and environmental protection, etc.), such as mining and open-pit mining equipment for mineral resources, large-scale thermal power, hydropower, and nuclear power plant equipment, UHV AC and DC transmission and transformation complete sets of equipment, petrochemical, coal chemical, salt chemical complete sets of equipment, black and non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling complete sets of equipment, civil aircraft, high-speed railway, subway and urban rail cars, automobiles, ships and other advanced traffic Transportation equipment, large-scale environmental protection equipment such as sewage, garbage and large-scale flue gas purification treatment, important complete sets of equipment required for large-scale projects such as big rivers and rivers, tunnel excavation and shield tunnels, and large-scale water transmission and gas transmission, advanced and applicable Agricultural Machinery and modern facilities Agricultural complete sets of equipment, large scientific instruments and medical equipment, advanced large-scale military equipment, communications, aviation control and aerospace equipment, advanced printing equipment and so on.

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A lampshade is a fixture that covers the lightbulb on a lamp to diffuse the light it emits. Lampshades can be made out of a wide variety of materials like paper, glass, fabric or stone. Usually conical or cylindrical in shape, lampshades can be found on floor, desk, tabletop, or suspended lamps. The term can also apply to the glass hung under many designs of ceiling lamp. Beyond its practical purpose, significant emphasis is also usually given to decorative and aesthetic features. A lamp shade also serves to "shade" human eyes from the direct glare of the light bulbs used to illuminate the lamp. Some lamp shades are also lined with a hard-backed opaque lining , often white or gold, to reflect as much light as possible through the top and bottom of the shade while blocking light from emitting through the walls of the shade itself. In other cases, the shade material is deliberately decorative so that upon illumination it may emphasize a display of color and light emitting through the shade surface itself.

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